Using Data Science to Fight Cancer
Our lab works on the intersection of computer engineering, statistical analysis and biology science. Based out of the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute we study systems biology, cancer, computational systems and integrative analysis. We work on projects funded by the Nation Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).
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The NHGRI Genomic Data Science Analysis, Visualization, and Informatics Lab-Space (AnVIL) is a project to build a data commons to allow …
Graph Databases, Machine Learning, Data Science
Graph Databases, Machine Learning, Pan Cancer, Cross Project Data Harmonization
Machine Learning, Precision Medicine, Computational Biology, Cancer Systems Biology
Computational Biology, Precision Oncology
Computational Biology, Data Science, Machine Learning, Precision Medicine, Cancer Early Detection
Challenges are achieving broad acceptance for addressing many biomedical questions and enabling tool assessment. But ensuring that the methods evaluated are reproducible and reusable is complicated by the diversity of software architectures, input and output file formats, and computing environments. To mitigate these problems, some challenges have leveraged new virtualization and compute methods, requiring participants to submit cloud-ready software packages. We review recent data challenges with innovative approaches to model reproducibility and data sharing, and outline key lessons for improving quantitative biomedical data analysis through crowd-sourced benchmarking challenges.
MOTIVATION: The vast majority of tools for neoepitope prediction from DNA sequencing of complementary tumor and normal patient samples do not consider germline context or the potential for co-occurrence of two or more somatic variants on the same mRNA transcript. Without consideration of these phenomena, existing approaches are likely to produce both false positive and false negative results, resulting in an inaccurate and incomplete picture of the cancer neoepitope landscape. We developed neoepiscope chiefly to address this issue for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions (indels). RESULTS: Herein, we illustrate how germline and somatic variant phasing affects neoepitope prediction across multiple datasets. We estimate that up to ∼5% of neoepitopes arising from SNVs and indels may require variant phasing for their accurate assessment. neoepiscope is performant, flexible, and supports several major histocompatibility complex binding affinity prediction tools.
BACKGROUND: The phenotypes of cancer cells are driven in part by somatic structural variants. Structural variants can initiate tumors, enhance their aggressiveness, and provide unique therapeutic opportunities. Whole-genome sequencing of tumors can allow exhaustive identification of the specific structural variants present in an individual cancer, facilitating both clinical diagnostics and the discovery of novel mutagenic mechanisms. A plethora of somatic structural variant detection algorithms have been created to enable these discoveries; however, there are no systematic benchmarks of them. Rigorous performance evaluation of somatic structural variant detection methods has been challenged by the lack of gold standards, extensive resource requirements, and difficulties arising from the need to share personal genomic information. RESULTS: To facilitate structural variant detection algorithm evaluations, we create a robust simulation framework for somatic structural variants by extending the BAMSurgeon algorithm. We then organize and enable a crowdsourced benchmarking within the ICGC-TCGA DREAM Somatic Mutation Calling Challenge (SMC-DNA). We report here the results of structural variant benchmarking on three different tumors, comprising 204 submissions from 15 teams. In addition to ranking methods, we identify characteristic error profiles of individual algorithms and general trends across them. Surprisingly, we find that ensembles of analysis pipelines do not always outperform the best individual method, indicating a need for new ways to aggregate somatic structural variant detection approaches. CONCLUSIONS: The synthetic tumors and somatic structural variant detection leaderboards remain available as a community benchmarking resource, and BAMSurgeon is available at https://github.com/adamewing/bamsurgeon .
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cancer genomics dataset includes over 10,000 tumor-normal exome pairs across 33 different cancer types, in total >400 TB of raw data files requiring analysis. Here we describe the Multi-Center Mutation Calling in Multiple Cancers project, our effort to generate a comprehensive encyclopedia of somatic mutation calls for the TCGA data to enable robust cross-tumor-type analyses. Our approach accounts for variance and batch effects introduced by the rapid advancement of DNA extraction, hybridization-capture, sequencing, and analysis methods over time. We present best practices for applying an ensemble of seven mutation-calling algorithms with scoring and artifact filtering. The dataset created by this analysis includes 3.5 million somatic variants and forms the basis for PanCan Atlas papers. The results have been made available to the research community along with the methods used to generate them. This project is the result of collaboration from a number of institutes and demonstrates how team science drives extremely large genomics projects..
We report the results of a DREAM challenge designed to predict relative genetic essentialities based on a novel dataset testing 98,000 shRNAs against 149 molecularly characterized cancer cell lines. We analyzed the results of over 3,000 submissions over a period of 4 months. We found that algorithms combining essentiality data across multiple genes demonstrated increased accuracy; gene expression was the most informative molecular data type; the identity of the gene being predicted was far more important than the modeling strategy; well-predicted genes and selected molecular features showed enrichment in functional categories; and frequently selected expression features correlated with survival in primary tumors. This study establishes benchmarks for gene essentiality prediction, presents a community resource for future comparison with this benchmark, and provides insights into factors influencing the ability to predict gene essentiality from functional genetic screens. This study also demonstrates the value of releasing pre-publication data publicly to engage the community in an open research collaboration.
Vast amounts of molecular data are being collected on tumor samples, which provide unique opportunities for discovering trends within and between cancer subtypes. Such cross-cancer analyses require computational methods that enable intuitive and interactive browsing of thousands of samples based on their molecular similarity. We created a portal called TumorMap to assist in exploration and statistical interrogation of high-dimensional complex ‘omics’ data in an interactive and easily interpretable way. In the TumorMap, samples are arranged on a hexagonal grid based on their similarity to one another in the original genomic space and are rendered with Google's Map technology. While the important feature of this public portal is the ability for the users to build maps from their own data, we pre-built genomic maps from several previously published projects. We demonstrate the utility of this portal by presenting results obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas project data.
The detection of somatic mutations from cancer genome sequences is key to understanding the genetic basis of disease progression, patient survival and response to therapy. Benchmarking is needed for tool assessment and improvement but is complicated by a lack of gold standards, by extensive resource requirements and by difficulties in sharing personal genomic information. To resolve these issues, we launched the ICGC-TCGA DREAM Somatic Mutation Calling Challenge, a crowdsourced benchmark of somatic mutation detection algorithms. Here we report the BAMSurgeon tool for simulating cancer genomes and the results of 248 analyses of three in silico tumors created with it. Different algorithms exhibit characteristic error profiles, and, intriguingly, false positives show a trinucleotide profile very similar to one found in human tumors. Although the three simulated tumors differ in sequence contamination (deviation from normal cell sequence) and in subclonality, an ensemble of pipelines outperforms the best individual pipeline in all cases. BAMSurgeon is available at https://github.com/adamewing/bamsurgeon/.
The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer Analysis Working Group collaborated on the Synapse software platform to share and evolve data, results and methodologies while performing integrative analysis of molecular profiling data from 12 tumor types. The group's work serves as a pilot case study that provides (i) a template for future large collaborative studies; (ii) a system to support collaborative projects; and (iii) a public resource of highly curated data, results and automated systems for the evaluation of community-developed models.
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile.